Inflammatory molecular endotypes of nasal polyps derived from White and Japanese populations.

Nakayama T*, Lee IT*, Le W, Tsunemi Y, Borchard NA, Zarabanda D, Dholakia SS, Gall PA, Yang A, Kim D, Akutsu M, Kashiwagi T, Patel ZM, Hwang PH, Frank DN, Haruna S, Ramakrishnan VR, Jiang S#, Nayak JV#.


Background: Emerging evidence suggests that chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a highly heterogeneous disease with disparate inflammatory characteristics between different racial groups and geographies. Currently, little is known about possible underlying distinguishing factors between these inflammatory differences.
Objective: Our aim was to interrogate differences in CRSwNP disease between White/non-Asian patients and Japanese patients by using whole transcriptome and single-cell RNA gene expression profiling of nasal polyps (NPs).
Methods: We performed whole transcriptome RNA sequencing with endotype stratification of NPs from 8 White patients (residing in the United States) and 9 Japanese patients (residing in Japan). Reproducibility was confirmed by quantitative PCR in an independent validation set of 46 White and 31 Japanese patients. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) was used to stratify key cell types for contributory transcriptional signatures.
Results: Unsupervised clustering analysis identified 2 major endotypes that were present within both cohorts of patients with NPs and had previously been reported at the cytokine level: (1) type 2 endotype and (2) non-type 2 endotype. Importantly, there was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of these endotypes between these geographically distinct subgroups with NPs (P = .03). Droplet-based single-cell RNA sequencing further identified prominent type 2 inflammatory transcript expression: C-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CCL13) and CCL18 in M2 macrophages, as well as cystatin SN (CST1) and CCL26 in basal, suprabasal, and secretory epithelial cells.
Conclusion: NPs from both racial groups harbor the same 2 major endotypes, which we have determined to be present in differing ratios between each cohort with CRSwNP disease. Distinct inflammatory and epithelial cells contribute to the type 2 inflammatory profiles observed.

Copyright © 2021 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.