Landscape of coordinated immune responses to H1N1 challenge in humans.
Rahil Z, Leylek R, Schürch CM, Chen H, Bjornson-Hooper Z, Christensen SR, Gherardini PR, Bhate SS, Spitzer MH, Fragiadakis GK, Mukherjee N, Kim N, Jiang S, Yo J, Gaudilliere B, Affrime MB, Bock BV, Hensley SE, Idoyaga J, Aghaeepour N, Kim K, Nolan GP, McIlwain DR.
Influenza is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Here we show changes in the abundance and activation states of more than 50 immune cell subsets in 35 individuals over 11 time points during human A/California/2009 (H1N1) virus challenge monitored using mass cytometry along with other clinical assessments. Peak change in monocyte, B cell, and T cell subset frequencies coincided with peak virus shedding, followed by marked activation of T and NK cells. Results led to the identification of CD38 as a critical regulator of plasmacytoid dendritic cell function in response to influenza virus. Machine learning using study-derived clinical parameters and single-cell data effectively classified and predicted susceptibility to infection. The coordinated immune cell dynamics defined in this study provide a framework for identifying novel correlates of protection in the evaluation of future influenza therapeutics.